Bacterial Wilt
Ralstonia solanacearum
Brown Rot


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Pathogen and Diseases
Ralstonia solanacearum Race 3 Biovar 2
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Symptoms & signs Causal organism Disease cycle & epidemiology Detection & identification Management References


Allen, C., Kelman, A., and French, E. R. 2001. Brown rot. Pages 11-13 in: Compendium of potato diseases, 2nd. ed. Stevenson, W. R., Loria, R., Franc, G. D., and Weingartner, D. P., eds. APS Press, St. Paul, M. N.

Autrique, A. and Potts, M. 1987. The influence of mixed cropping on the control of potato bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum). Annals of Applied Biology 111:125-133.

Boshou, L. 2005. A broad review and perspective on breeding for resistance to bacterial wilt. Pages 225-238 in: Bacterial wilt disease and the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex. Allen, C., Prior, P., and Hayward, A. C., eds. APS press, St. Paul, M. N.

CABI/EPPO. 1999. Distribution maps of plant diseases. Map N0. 785 CAB International. Wallingford, U. K.

Caruso, P., Gorris, M. T., Cambra, M., Palomo, J. L., Collar, J., and Lopez, M. M. 2002. Enrichment double-antibody sandwich indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that uses a specific monoclonal antibody for sensitive detection of Ralstonia solanacearum in asymptomatic potato tubers. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 68:3634-3638.

Cook, D., Barlow, E., and Sequeira, L. 1989. Genetic diversity of Pseudomonas solanacearum: Detection of restriction fragment length polymorphisms with DNA probes that specify virulence and the hypersensitive response. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 2:113-121.

Cook, D. and Sequeira, L. 1991. The use of subtractive hybridization to obtain a DNA probe specific for Pseudomonas solanacearum race 3. Molecular and General Genetics 227:401-410.

Cook, D. and Sequeira, L. 1994. Strain differentiation of Pseudomonas solanacearum by molecular genetic methods. Pages 77-93 in: Bacterial wilt: the disease and its causative agent, Pseudomonas solanacearum. A. C. Hayward and G. L. Hartman, eds. CAB International, Wallingford, U. K.

Coutinho, T. A. 2005. Introduction and prospectus on the survival of R. solanacearum. Pages 29-38 in: Bacterial wilt disease and the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex. Allen, C., Prior, P., and Hayward, A. C., eds. APS press, St. Paul, M. N.

Denny, T. P. 2006. Plant pathogenic Ralstonia species. Pages 573-644 in: Plant-associated bacteria. S. S. Gnanamanickam, ed. Springer Publishing, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Denny, T. P. and Hayward, A. C. 2001. Gram-negative bacteria: Ralstonia. Pages 151-174 in: Laboratory guide for identification of plant pathogenic bacteria, 3rd ed. Schaad, N. W., Jones, J. B., and Chun, W., eds. APS Press, St. Paul, M. N.

Douglas, S. M. 2002. Diseases of geranium. The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, C. T.

Elphinstone, J. G. 2001. Monitoring and control of the potato brown rot bacterium (Ralstonia solanacearum) in the UK: A case study in: Proceedings of the FNK/EAPR/ESA/UEITP 2nd European Potato Processing Conference. Held Nov., 14-15th. Lausanne, Switzerland.

Elphinstone, J. G. 2005. The current bacterial wilt situation: a global overview. Pages 9-28 in: Bacterial wilt disease and the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex. C. Allen, P. Prior, and A. C. Hayward, eds. APS press, St-Paul, M. N.

Elphinstone, J. G., Henessy, J., Wilson, J. K., and Stead, D. 1996. Sensitivity of different methods for the detection of Ralstonia solanacearum in potato tuber extracts. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 26:663-678.

Elphinstone, J. and Harris, L. 2002. Monitoring and control of the potato brown rot bacterium in irrigation water. 2 p. British Potato Council, Oxford, U. K.

Englebrecht, M. C. 1994.
Modification of a semi-selective medium for the isolation and quantification of Pseudomonas solanacearum. Pages 3-5 in: Bacterial wilt newsletter. Hayward, A. C., ed. ACIAR, Canberra, Australia.

Farag, N. S., Lashin, S. M., All-Abdel, R. S., Shatta, H. M., and Seif-Elyazal, A. M. 1982. Antibiotics and control of potato black leg and brown rot diseases. Agricultural Research Review 60:149-166.

Fegan M. and Prior P. 2005. How complex is the "Ralstonia solanacearum" complex ? Pages 449-461 in: Bacterial wilt disease and the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex. C., Allen, P., Prior, A. C., Hayward, eds. APS Press, St. Paul, M. N.

Fegan, M., Holoway, A. C., Hayward, A. C., and Timmis, J. 1998. Development of a diagnostic test based on the polymerase chain reaction to identify strains of R. solanacearum exhibiting the biovar 2 genotype. Pages 34-43 in: Bacterial wilt disease: Molecular and ecological aspects. P., Prior, C., Allen, and J., Elphinstone, eds. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Germany.

Floyd, J. 2003. Action plan for Ralstonia solanacearum race 3, biovar 2 found in nursery facilities. 23 p. Published Feb., 27, Version 3. USDA, APHIS, PPQ. Pest Detection and Management Programs, Riverdale, M. D.

French, E. R., Gutarra, L., Aley, P., and Elphinstone, J. 1995. Culture media for Pseudomonas solanacearum isolation, identification and maintenance. Fitopatologia 30:126-130.

Graham, J. and Lloyd, A. B. 1978. Solanum cinereum R. Br., a wild host of Pseudomonas solanacearum biotype II. Journal of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science 44:124-126.

Grey, B. E. and Steck, T. R. 2001. The viable but nonculturable state of Ralstonia solanacearum may be involved in long-term survival and plant infection. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 67:3866-3872.

Hayward, A. C. 1975.
Biotypes of Pseudomonas solanacearum in Australia. Australian Plant Pathology Society Newsletter 4:9-11.

Hayward, A. C. 1991. Biology and epidemiology of bacterial wilt caused by Pseudomonas solanacearum. Annual Review of Phytopathology 29:65-87.

Janse, J. D. 1996. Potato brown rot in western Europe - history, present occurrence and some remarks on possible origin, epidemiology and control strategies. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 26:679-695.

Janse, J. D., van den Beld, H. E., Elphinstone, J., Simpkins, S., Tjou-Tam-Sin, L. N. A., and van Vaerenbergh, J. 2005. Introduction to Europe of Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2, race 3 in Pelargonium zonale cuttings from Kenya. Pages 81-94 in: Bacterial wilt disease and the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex. C. Allen, P. Prior, and A. C. Hayward, eds. APS Press, St-Paul, M. N.

Kelman, A. 1954. The relationship of pathogenicity of Pseudomonas solanacearum to colony appearance in a tetrazolium medium. Phytopathology 44:693-695.

Kelman, A. and Sequeira, L. 1965. Root-to-root spread of Pseudomonas solanacearum. Phytopathology 55:304-309.

Lambert, C. D. 2002. Agricultural bioterrorism protection act of 2002: possession, use, and transfer of biological; agents and toxins; interim and final rule. (7 CFR Part 331). Federal Register 67:76908-76938.

Lemaga, B., Kanzikwera, R., Kakuhenzire, R., Hakiza, J. J., and Manzi, G. 2001. The effect of crop rotation on bacterial wilt incidence and potato tuber yields. African Crop Sciencey Journal 9:257-266.

Lemay, A., Redlin, S., Fowler, G., and Dirani, M. 2003. Pest data sheet: Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2. Published Feb., 12. USDA-APHIS-PPQ. Center for plant health science and technology. Plant epidemiology and risk analysis laboratory, Raleigh, N. C.

Luo, K. and Wang, Z. 1983. Study of bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum) controlled by antagonistic and avirulent P. solanacearum. Acta Phytopathological Sinica 13:51-56.

McCarter, S. M. 1991. Bacterial wilt. Pages 28-29 in: Compendium of tomato diseases. Jones, J. B., Jones, J. P., Stall, R. E., and Zitter, T. A., eds. APS Press, St. Paul, M. N.

Mclaughlin, R. J. and Sequeira, L. 1988. Evaluation of an avirulent strain of Pseudomonas solanacearum for biological control of bacterial wilt of potato. American Potato Journal 65:255-268.

Michel, V. V. and Mew, T. W. 1998. Effect of a soil amendment on the survival of Ralstonia solanacearum in different soils. Phytopathology 88:300-305.

Nishiyama, M., Shiomi, Y., Suzuki, S., and Marumoto, T. 1999. Suppression of growth of Ralstonia solanacearum, tomato bacterial wilt agent, on/in tomato seedlings cultivated in a suppressive soil. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 45:79-87.

Norman, D. J., Chen, J., Yuen, J. M. F., Mangravita-Novo, A., Byrne, D., and Walsh, L. 2006. Control of bacterial wilt of geranium with phosphorous acid. Plant Disease 90:798-802.

Olsson, K. 1976.
Experience of brown rot caused by Pseudomonas solanacearum. EPPO Bulletin 6:199-207.

Persley, G. J. 1986. Ecology of Pseudomonas solanacearum, the causal agent of bacterial wilt. Pages 71-76 in: Bacterial wilt disease in Asia and the South Pacific. ACIAR Proceedings N0. 13. G. J. Persley, ed. ACIAR, Canberra, Australia.

Pradeep, K. and Sood, A. K. 2001. Integration of antagonistic rhizobacteria and soil solarization for the management of bacterial wilt of tomato caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. Indian Phytopathology 54:12-15.

Pradhanang, P. M., Ji, P., Momol, M. T., Olson, S. M., and Jones, J. B. 2005. Application of acibenzolar-S-methyl enhances host resistance in tomato against Ralstonia solanacearum. Plant Disease 89:989-993.

Pradhanang, P.M., Momol, M.T., Olson, S.M., and Jones, J.B. 2003. Effects of plant essential oils on Ralstonia solanacearum population density and bacterial wilt incidence in tomato. Plant Disease 87:423-427.

Priou, S., Gutarra, L., and Aley, P. 2006. An improved enrichment broth for the sensitive detection of Ralstonia solanacearum (biovars 1 and 2A) in soil using DAS-ELISA. Plant Pathology 55:36-45.

Rowe, R. C. and Powelson, M. L. 2007. Potato health management: a holistic approach. Pages 1-5 in: Potato health management, Second ed. Johnson, D. A., ed. APS Press Publisher: St. Paul, M.N.

Roy, S., Ojha, P. K., Ojha, K. L., Upadhyay, J. P., and Jha, M. M. 1999. Effect of mixed application of fertilizers and organic amendments on the disease intensity of wilt complexes on banana (Musa sp.). Journal of Applied Biology 9:84-86.

Saddler, G. S. 2005. Management of bacterial wilt disease. Pages 121-132 in: Bacterial wilt disease and the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex. Allen, C., Prior, P., and Hayward, A. C., eds. APS press, St. Paul, M. N.

Schaad, N. W., Gaush, P. E., Ozakman M., inventors. 2007. Real-time PCR primers and probes for identification of Ralstonia solanacearum race 3, biovar 2 in potato and other plants. Issued: Aug., 28. Patent 6,410,223.

Smith, J. J. and Saddler, G. S. 2001. The use of avirulent mutants of Ralstonia solanacearum to control bacterial wilt disease. Pages 159-176 in: Biotic interactions in plant-pathogen associations. Jeger, M. J. and Spence, N. J., eds. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, U. K.

Smith, J. J., Offord, L. C., Holderness, M., and Saddler, G. S. 1995. Genetic diversity of Burkholderia solanacearum (synonym Pseudomonas solanacearum) race 3 in Kenya. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 61:4262-4268.

Stefani, E. and Mazzucchi, U. 1997. Protein electrophoretograms for the identification of Ralstonia solanacearum in potato tubers. Journal of plant pathology 79:189-195.

Swanson, J. K., Yao, J., Tans-Kersten, J., and Allen, C. 2005. Behavior of Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 duing latent infection of geranium. Phytopathology 95:136-143.

Trigalet, A., Trigalet-Demery, D., and Prior, P. 1998. Elements of biocontrol of tomato bacterial wilt. Pages 332-336 in: Bacterial wilt disease: Molecular and ecological aspects. Prior, P., Allen C., and Elphinstone J., eds. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.

Van der Wolf, J. M., Bonants, P. J. M., Smith, J. J., Hagenaar, M., Nijhuis, E., van Beckhoven, J. R. C., Saddler, G. S., Trigalet, A., and Feuillade, R. 1998. Genetic diversity of Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 in Western Europe as determined by AFLP, RC-PFGE and Rep-PCR. Pages 44-49 in: Bacterial wilt disease: Molecular and ecological aspects. P., Prior, C., Allen, and J., Elphinstone, eds. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Germany.

Van Elsas, J.D., Kastelein, P., van Bekkum, P., van der Wolf, J.M., de Vries, P.M., and van Overbeek, L.S. 2000. Survival of Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2, the causative agent of potato brown rot, in field and microcosm soils in temperate climates. Phytopathology 90:1358-1366.

Weller, S. A., Elphinstone, J. G., Smith, N. C., Boonham, N., and Stead, D. E. 2000. Detection of Ralstonia solanacearum strains with a quantitative, multiplex, real-time, fluorogenic PCR (TaqMan) assay. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66:2853-2858.

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Symptoms & signs Causal organism Disease cycle & epidemiology Detection & identification Management References

Author: Patrice G. Champoiseau of University of Florida
Reviewers: Caitilyn Allen of University of Wisconsin; Jeffrey B. Jones, Carrie Harmon and Timur M. Momol of University of Florida
Publication date: September 12, 2008
Supported by: The United States Department of Agriculture - National Research Initiative Program (2007-2010)